## How to Conduct Mathematical Proofs

A mathematical proof is an argument that logically establishes a statement. It derives its conclusions from a series of theorems and definitions, as well as postulates and assumptions within a particular mathematical system. It can be a lengthy process, but it is the only way to know that a statement is true. Mathematical proofs are usually written in prose interwoven with symbolic demonstrations and diagrams, but some people use other styles, including diagrams and handwritten notes. In some cases, the written form is more effective than the symbolic form for communicating ideas and establishing an argument.

The first function that we often associate with proof is verification, a process in which we attest to the validity of a conjecture. However, there are other functions that can also be attributed to proof. These include explanation, systematization, discovery, and communication, all of which are important for a mathematician to perform as part of their work.

Verification is a critical function, especially for students who are beginning to develop the skills necessary to prove their own arguments and for teachers who are trying to determine if their student has mastered the concepts in a lesson. If students get stuck on a problem, they should ask their teacher or classmates for help.

It is helpful to have a clear outline of each proof, which reflects which ideas are dependent on which others. This will help students focus their thinking and make it easier for others to follow. They should then punctuate their narrative with clearly labeled definitions, conjectures, and theorems.

Providing examples and illustrations is another essential element of mathematical proof. They can reveal both the general characteristics of a problem as well as interesting special cases. They may also clarify imprecise notation and definitions.

As students progress through the course, they will likely be asked to write more complicated proofs that stretch over many pages and involve more than one step. This can be an intimidating and daunting task, but it is essential for students to practice constructing effective proofs in this manner.

This activity is particularly useful for students who are learning to apply a new method or technique within their mathematical domains. It allows them to apply their knowledge to a specific question and gives them the chance to see how these techniques can be used to construct powerful arguments for other problems.

Often students begin a proof with a general assumption or model and then add details as they move along. They might start with substitution (using the addition of two angles to form a line) and then explain how that can be used to prove that angle A and angle B sum to 180deg.

It is also common for proofs to incorporate multiple drafts as they are rearranged to ensure that each step in the argument is well-structured and easy for the reader to understand. Taking time to carefully write a draft can save time and energy later on in the process of writing the final version of the proof.

In conclusion, conducting mathematical proofs is a fundamental aspect of mathematics that allows us to establish the validity of statements and deepen our understanding of the subject. Proofs serve various functions, including verification, explanation, systematization, discovery, and communication. They provide a rigorous and logical framework for validating mathematical concepts and arguments.

When engaging in proof writing, it is important to approach the task with clarity and organization. Outlining the proof, clearly labeling definitions, conjectures, and theorems, and providing examples and illustrations all contribute to a well-structured and coherent argument. Students should seek assistance from teachers or classmates when facing challenges, as collaboration and discussion can lead to valuable insights and learning opportunities.

As students progress in their mathematical education, they will encounter more complex proofs that require multiple steps and extended reasoning. These challenges should be embraced as opportunities to develop critical thinking skills and to apply mathematical techniques in solving intricate problems. Students should also be open to the iterative nature of proof writing, recognizing that multiple drafts and revisions are often necessary to ensure the clarity and effectiveness of their arguments.

Writing mathematical proofs not only enhances problem-solving abilities but also cultivates logical reasoning, analytical thinking, and the ability to communicate mathematical ideas effectively. It is through the process of constructing and analyzing proofs that mathematicians and students alike deepen their understanding of mathematical concepts and contribute to the advancement of the field.

In summary, conducting mathematical proofs is an integral part of mathematical study. By embracing the principles of rigor, logic, and clarity, students can develop their ability to construct compelling and sound arguments. Ultimately, the practice of proof writing not only strengthens mathematical skills but also fosters a deeper appreciation and engagement with the beauty and elegance of mathematics.