## Algebra

The origin of algebra is a little-known but significant event in the history of mathematics. The word was first used in the book of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, a Persian mathematician who lived in Baghdad, Iraq, in the 9th century. Al-Khwarizmi revolutionized algebra, creating an algorithm and a simplified form of equations that influenced medieval and European mathematicians. In the 12th century, his work on elementary algebra was translated into Latin. Archimedes, also known as the Father of Mathematics, was born in Syracuse, Greece, around 287 BC. He is credited with inventing a series of mathematical equations that have become known as Pythagorean Triplets. A later mathematician, Diophantus, developed an algebraic method that he called “Arithmetica.”

During the Middle Ages, mathematics became a subject that was taught and studied in both the Islamic and Western worlds. Eventually, a person named Omar Khayyam, a Persian mathematician and poet, wrote a book about algebra and quadratic equations. His mathematical work remained unknown in the Western world until the 1930s. Nonetheless, his work contributed significantly to the development of modern algebra.

Early forms of algebra relied on a few symbols to represent geometric objects. Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians employed the False Position method, while ancient Greek mathematicians represented geometric objects with lines. However, both Greek and Babylonian mathematicians emphasized flexible operations. They used linear interpolation to approximate intermediate values and multiplication and division to solve mathematical problems. One of the earliest equations solved by Al-Khwarizmi was the quadratic equation y = x2 + x3. It was the al-jabr method that gave the process its name, or re-restoration.

The word “al-jabr” comes from the Arabic word “al-jabru” which means reunion or restoring. Originally, al-jabr was a method of subtracting like terms from both sides of an equation. But it was later introduced as one of two methods for solving quadratic equations. The term “al-jabr” also appears in the title of Al-Kitab al-muhtasar fi hisab al-gabr wa-l-muqabala, a work of Al-Khwarizmi, which is still used today in terms of algorithm.

Al-Khwarizmi’s al-jabr is based on intuitive geometric arguments and is the primary source of the word “algebra”. His work helped to influence other European and Arab mathematicians and spread the discipline to other nations. Among other things, Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book on quadratic equations, a book on astronomy, and a book on calculating. Unlike the earlier works of Diophantus, his book was not systematically worked out. Instead, it consisted of a number of smaller logical steps that led to a solution to the problem.

Later, Al-Khwarizmi compiled an essay that explained the principles of making calculations. Although his book was less sophisticated than the earlier works of Diophantus and Brahmagupta, it was influential in laying the groundwork for later algebra. After his death, his book was translated into Latin, which is where the term algebra came from.

As a result of his work, Al-Khwarizmi is often considered the father of algebra. However, he is merely one of a long line of mathematicians who discovered algebra. Other prominent figures include Diophantus, Brahmagupta, and Archimedes.