What is the Molecular Geometry of PH3?
PH3 molecular geometry is an electronic structural representation of a molecule. It is a trigonal pyramid with three bonded pairs of electrons in its valence shell. The central atom of the molecule has a lone pair. These are called p-orbitals. As a result, the molecule’s polarity is determined by the difference in electronegativity of the bonding atoms.
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Phosphorus is a group VA element, and its chemical formula is PH3. Phosphorus is a very poisonous gas, and its odor is similar to garlic or fish. In its molecular structure, phosphorous is attached to three hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom is surrounded by two electrons in its outer valence shell. This makes it possible for the molecule to have a permanent dipole moment.
Phosphorous has a central atom that has one lone pair of electrons. The lone pair repels the surrounding bonded atoms and pushes them away from its position. Moreover, a central atom of phosphorus has a minimum formal charge, and so it is more likely to share its electrons with the surrounding atoms. Consequently, the molecule adopts a tetrahedral geometry.
In addition to the Phosphorous atom, the three bonded pairs of electrons in a PH3 molecule also have a minimum formal charge. Aside from the lone pair, there are two sigma bonds and a single bond between the phosphorus and the hydrogen atoms. The combination of these sigma bonds and lone pairs forms the base of the pyramid.
There are eight valence electrons in a PH3 atom. Because of the differences in electronegativity between the atoms, the hydrogen and phosphorous atoms can only form single bonds. When combined with the lone pair of electrons on the Phosphorous atom, the resulting tetrahedral geometry is distorted. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the number of lone pairs and sigma bonds that are present in the PH3 molecule. Using a method known as Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory, or VSEPR, it is possible to predict the PH3 molecule’s tetrahedral molecular geometry.
Besides using the VSEPR method, it is possible to use the AXN method. The AXN method uses the VSEPR chart to calculate the lone pairs on the central atom of a molecule. By calculating the number of lone pairs and the number of atoms that are bonded to the central atom, the shape of the molecule can be predicted. This method is very popular, and can be used to calculate the tetrahedral geometry of a PH3 molecule.
In general, drawing the PH3 Lewis structure is not too difficult. However, it does require that you know the valence electron of the PH3 molecule. If you are uncertain, it is best to consult a chemical expert to obtain accurate information. Alternatively, you can also follow the steps listed below to get a more precise idea of the PH3 molecule’s molecular geometry.
To draw a PH3 Lewis structure, you will need the valence electron. In addition, you will need to know the number of sigma bonds and lone pairs that are in the phosphine molecule. Moreover, you will need to calculate the PH3 hybridization.